Environment

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Author(s): Pain, B.F., V.R. Phillips, J.F.M. Huijsmans and J.V. Klarenbeek
Publication Date: January 1, 1991
Reference: Rapport 91-9, December 1991, prijs f 25, -. IMAG-DLO, IGER and Silsoe Institute. Dienst Landbouwkundig Onderzoek. Instituut voor Mechanisatie, Arbeid en Gebouwen. 28 pp.
Country: United Kingdom

Summary:

Experiments were done with researchers from the Netherlands and UK to evaluate odour and ammonia emissions (OAE) following spreading of pig slurry on arable land. Emphasis of the Netherlands team was directed toward ammonia reduction where the UK team paid more attention to odours. Tilling is a good way to abate OAE as the slurry surface exposed to air is greatly reduced furthermore the contact of the ammonium with soil colloids is increase thus reducing ammonia emissions. Investigations were done with manure application on clay soils and also in sandy soils and different tillage techniques (plough, rotary harrow and tines) were tested for their abilities in OAE control. Various manure management techniques were also tested for ammonia emissions (solid-liquid separation, pit storage under slatted floor for the entire fattening period and weekly manure removal and storage in enclosed tank).
The results showed that any delay of incorporation results in higher total OAE; the longer the delay, the more OAE. Incorporation by ploughing gave better results in clay soils, as for sandy soils both ploughing and rotavating were interesting. The cultivator technique was the least effective one on clay and sandy soils.
However for odours, only substantial reductions were noted for direct incorporation on clay soil and delaying incorporation did not effect the emission level significantly. Significant differences were obtained with different machinery and ploughing showed to be the most effective for odour abatement. For the manure management techniques, no substantial difference in ammonia emission were measured between when the manure was removed weekly compare with the manure being stored for the whole fattening period. The separation technique showed to be more effective in reducing ammonia emissions after landspreading as the losses from urine were less than 20% compared to slurry (control) and the losses from the faeces where equivalent to the one of the control.

This work is interesting and combined the expertise from researchers from 2 European countries that had mostly different concerns, ammonia emissions for the Netherlands and odours for the UK and different expertise, the UK gained expertise in olfactometry and measurement of emissions during spreading and the team from the Netherlands benefited from the micrometeorological and wind tunnels method used by the AFRC-IGER team

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