Pork Insight Articles

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Compounding Iron Dextran with NSAIDs at Processing

Posted in: Centered on Swine, Pork Insight Articles, Prairie Swine Centre, Production by student on June 19, 2018 | No Comments

Author: Ron Johnson

Publication: Centred on Swine, Winter 2016 Volume 22 Number 2

Summary:

The objective of this project was to evaluate whether the mixing (compounding) of NSAIDs (anti-inflammatory/analgesic agents), such as meloxicam or flunixin meglumine, with iron dextran for administration to piglets at the time of processing has any effects on the availability of the NSAID.

 

In a series of experiments, the stability and systemic availability of both NSAIDs when mixed with iron dextran in the same bottle for administration to piglets at the time of processing was evaluated. Additionally, the effects of this practice on iron dextran’s ability to increase piglet hemoglobin concentrations were studied.

 

It was found that the amount of NSAID recovered from the bottle was reduced beginning shortly after mixing.  As well that blood drug levels measured in piglets for each NSAID when compounded with iron dextran was significantly lower than when each NSAID was administered alone to piglets.

 

There were no significant effects of mixing NSAIDs with iron dextran on iron dextran’s ability to increase hemoglobin following administration to piglets.  The overall conclusion from these experiments is that the mixing of NSAIDs with iron dextran in the same bottle for administration to piglets at the time of processing results in a suspected drug interaction that reduces the shelf-life of the formulation and the amount of NSAID available for therapeutic effects.

 

Using Exploratory Behavior to Increase Pre-Weaning Creep Consumption

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Author: Yolande Seddon and Jennifer Brown

Publication: Centred on Swine, Winter 2016 Volume 22 Number 2

Summary:

This trial investigated if feed consumption both before and after weaning could be increased through stimulating exploratory behavior in piglets. This study question which method would be the best to stimulate exploratory behavior, through the provision of enrichment or through the use of creep feed.

 

The study concluded that when comparing a large tray feeder to that of a standard feeder, the large tray feeder was more effective at encouraging social feeding and therefor attracting the piglets to creep. The large tray feeder was also more effective than the enrichment, which was a rope that was hung in the farrowing crate.

 

The tray feeder before weaning also had a positive growth effect on piglets immediately following weaning. It is likely that these growth benefits arose from piglets more readily taking to solid food post weaning as they had already been exposed to it.

 

These results are favorable as piglets with a reduced growth check post weaning are less likely to have a reduced immune response, making them better prepared for immune challenge.

 

Managing Sows in Groups from Weaning: Are there Advantages

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Author: Yolande Seddon and Jennifer Brown

Publication: Centred on Swine, Winter 2016 Volume 22 Number 2

Summary:

With growing consumer and retailer pressure to limit the utilization of confinement, gestation stalls have been banned in many parts of the world. The question is, with these limitations on stall use have implications for sow fertility and production or could this be advantageous.

 

This study compared three different times of group housing for sows: Early mixing (directly after weaning), Late Mixing (mixed at five weeks gestation) and pre-socialization (mixed for two days after weaning then stall housed until five weeks gestation).

 

Measurements were taken for sow aggression, welfare and reproductive performance, and salivary cortisol levels.

 

In conclusion, they determined that welfare was not significantly affected by the mixing treatments. Grouping sows at weaning is a viable option with correct conditions and management. Grouping sows at weaning appeared to display production advantages indicated by improved conception rates and reduced stillborns.

 

More work is needed with regards to this hypothesis as the same results may not be evident in a group feeding system where sows are forced to cope with a higher level of competition.

 

Can Flaxseed Replace Antibiotics in Nursery Diets?

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Author: Laura Eastwood and Denise Beaulieu

Publication: Centred on Swine, Winter 2016 Volume 22 Number 2

Summary:

Due to the phasing out of antibiotics from feed it is essential to find alternative strategies to aid in nutritional modulation and to help piglets cope with weaning. During weaning they are exposed to three major stressors: nutritional, environmental and social.

 

In addition to determining if flaxseed would be an effective alternative to antibiotics the study also looked at weaning at 3 weeks of age versus weaning at 4 weeks of age.

 

The results from this trial show that in a high health situation utilizing antibiotics in feed has no benefit regardless of the age that the piglets are weaned at. In addition, at nursery exit (8 weeks of age), piglets that were weaned at 3 weeks of age had heavier body weights then those weaned at 4 weeks of age. This is believed to be due to that fact that piglets weaned at 3 weeks of age had lower WBC, CK and AST counts.

 

Geothermal Systems for Heating in Pork Production

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Author: Bernardo Predicala, Ph.D.

Publication: Centred on Swine, Winter 2016 Volume 22 Number 2

Summary:

Previous studies have displayed the cost of energy to a swine operation to range from $7 to $12 of every pig sold. This value has been increasing over the years and now represents the third largest cost in producing pigs. Of that energy, a survey of 28 swine farms in Saskatchewan identified that 80% of it was utilized for heating and ventilation.

 

Conventional heating systems utilize gas, oil or electricity whereas a geothermal system provides energy by using ground heat.

 

An in barn evaluation of the geothermal system demonstrated approximately a 36% reduction in energy consumption for heating and ventilation in a room with a geothermal system installed during the heating system. This reduction was in comparison to a room that only had a conventional forced-convection heater

 

Reducing Temperature Requirements for Group Housed Sows to Save Cost

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Author: Alvin Alvardo, M.Sc. and Bernardo Predicala, Ph.D.

Publication: Centred on Swine, Winter 2016 Volume 22 Number 2

Summary:

The revised Canadian Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Pigs has the expectation that by 2024 producers will convert their gestation housing from stalls to group housing. In order to aid in making this a successful transformation industry is determining what benefits producers can gain from this transformation.

 

Sows that are housed in group housing systems have been determined to prefer a temperature between 9 to 12°. This is significantly lower than the current standard gestation room temperature of 16.5°C. Generally, dropping below 15°C (the lower critical temperature) would require the provision of more food in order to maintain sow body condition.

 

Increasing the sow’s fibre intake aids in the production of heat from digestion, but it is also a mechanism to increase the feeling of satiety in the sow which decreases aggression.

 

This experiment was completed in two phases. Phase one utilized experimental chambers and resulted in sows activating the operant mechanism at 12.5°C. The second phase of the experiment was completed in rooms for group housing that accommodated 28 sows. Sows in this phase of the experiment maintained temperature 5°C lower than the normal set temperature. This resulted in a 78% reduction in energy utilization, which could translate into a savings of $5/pig during the heating season.

 

Assessing Enrichment for Sows

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Author: Victoria Kyeiwaa and Jennifer Brown, Ph.D

Publication: Centred on Swine, Winter 2016 Volume 22 Number 2

Summary:

Interest regarding enrichment for sows has steamed for revisions to the Canadian Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Pigs which includes, “multiple forms of enrichment that aim to improve the welfare of the animals”.

 

Studies have shown that when growing pigs are given appropriate enrichment they can benefit from reduced aggression, fewer behavioral vices, reduced fear and improved growth. It is anticipated that similar results can be expected with sows. This study will examine varying methods for effective environmental enrichment for group housed sows that will be economically viable in the swine industry.

 

Straw has been determined to be an effective form of enrichment for sows, however there is reluctance to use straw as it could pose a risk to biosecurity. This experiment will examine rope, small amounts of straw, and wood on chains to compare to a control treatment that is provided with no enrichment.

 

This study also considered the influence that social status will have on enrichment use in swine. This was done by focusing on six focal pigs, three that were dominant and three subordinate.

 

In addition, this study will also focus on if regular rotation will aid in keeping the animal interacting with the enrichment tool for longer as a common problem with enrichments is that animals lose interest over time.

Assessing Particle Size and the Cost of Grinding

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Author: Danilo Sotto, Tom Scott, and Denise Beaulieu

Publication: Centred on Swine, Winter 2016 Volume 22 Number 2

Summary:

Studies have shown that particle size reduction improves feed efficiency in all stages of production. Studies at Kansas State University have identified a recommended average particle size for corn-soybean meal based diets. Information regarding particle size in wheat is limited.

 

This study focuses on particle size in wheat with regards to feed efficiency to improve animal performance and income for producers by improving understanding of particle size under regional conditions.

 

Through utilizing a hammer mill it can be estimated that grinding barley from 850 to 550 um would cost between $0.65-$1.05/mt. Assuming that for every 100um the feed efficiency is improved by 1.3% it is estimated that a net savings of $7.80/pig in total feed cost can occur by reducing the particle size to 300 um.

 

As flowability is a concern when grinding particles finely it is suggested that finding the optimum balance between wheat and barley could address this issue as wheat is more flowable than barley.

Improving Biosecurity in Swine Transport

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Author: Sarah Ethier, Jennifer Brown, Ph.D

Publication: Centred on Swine, Winter 2016 Volume 22 Number 2

Summary:

While on farm biosecurity measures are increasingly stringent, a major gap that can allow for transmission of disease is biosecurity in transport. As such, new cleaning procedures for trailers must be developed to make sanitizing trailers easy and effective. Problems associated with cleaning trailers include the low number of trailers available, downtime required between loads, limited washing capacity, and trailer designs that make cleaning difficult.

After inventory of currently available trailers is taken and graded on ease of cleaning and ease of animal handling, automated systems will be developed to assist in cleaning the trailers.

The three main trailer companies supplying stock trailers to Canada are Wilson Trailer Company, Eby Trailers, and Merritt Equipment. Each of these trailers has both pros and cons. However, small changes such as capped end-plates and changes in crossbar shape can go a long way in making cleaning easier.
An up and coming trailer style is hydraulic. These trailers contain multiple flat decks that are filled with livestock and then hydraulically raised into place. This allows ease of pig movements and ease of cleaning. However, it is not known if these systems will withstand the harsh winters in Western Canada.

Does the Inclusion of Lyso-Lecithin (Lecrid) Improve the Growth of Newly Weaned Pigs?

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Author: A.D. Beaulieu, P. Leterne

Publication: Centred on Swine, Spring 2017 Volume 23 Number 1

Summary:

The newly weaned piglet is abruptly transferred from a liquid milk diet, containing about 8% fat to a dry diet with approximately 5% fat. Moreover, fat digestibility of milk fat by the suckling pig approaches 95% while the digestion of dietary fat by the piglet shortly after weaning is only about 75% (cited by Price et al. 2013). Thus, supplementing dietary fat to the diet of the newly weaned piglet does not alleviate the deficit in energy intake experienced at this time.

Price et al. (2013) showed that the addition of lecithin to the diet of newly weaned piglets improved digestibility of long-chain fatty acids. However, similar to the results of others, this did not result in an improved growth rate. Lecithin, which is primarily phosphatidylcholine, is commonly added to food, because it is an emulsifier. It is listed in CFIA, Schedule IV. We hypothesized that Lyso-lecithin will improve digestibility of tallow, resulting in a performance response when the pigs are limiting in energy

 
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