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Influence of phytase and carbohydrase enzymes on apparent ileal nutrient and standardized ileal amino acid digestibility in growing pigs fed wheat and barley-based diets

Posted in: Energy, Environment, Production by katrina on August 24, 2011 | No Comments

Effects of phytase with orwithout carbohydrases on utilization of nutrients other than P are not well understood in diets adequate in P. Thus, we investigated the effects of Phyzyme XP® (PX) and carbohydrase enzymes (Porzyme®: xylanase and β-glucanase; C) on coefficients of ileal nutrient digestibility (CAID) in growing pigs fed wheat/barley-based diets. The dietswere: 1) basal (B, 8% less DE than NRC, 1998, with no enzymes), 2) B+PX, 3) B+PX+50 g C/MT (B+PX+50C) and 4) B+ PX+100 g C/MT (B+PX+100C). The PX was added at 100 g/MT to all phytase containing feed, and C was added at 50 and 100 g/MT to diets 3 and 4, respectively. Acid insoluble ash was used as an indigestible marker. Diets were fed to 4 barrows (BW 35.9 kg) fitted with a Tcannula at the distal ileum, according to a 4×4 Latin square design. Experimental periods lasted 7 d and ileal digesta were collected in 12-h periods on d-6 and d-7. At the end of the 4- wk period, pigs were fed a 5% casein diet to estimate basal endogenous AA losses. Data were subjected to pre-planned contrasts. Overall, diets containing PX had higher CAID of energy (0.60 vs. 0.58), AA (0.72 vs. 0.69) and phytate (0.56 vs. 0.33) comparedwith the B diet. When corrected for basal endogenous losses, PX-containing diets had higher coefficients of standardized ileal digestibility (CSID) of Met and Thr than the B diet. In the presence of PX, the highest response to C for CAID of energy (0.59 vs. 0.62) was achieved at 50 g/MT; the AID of DM and energy increased by 7.2 and 7.0%, respectively, with 50 g/MT of C compared to B diet. In conclusion, phytase and carbohydrase combined increased CAID of energy, and that PX-containing diets not only increased CAID of AA but resulted in lower diet-specific endogenous losses in a practical diet.

 

 

For more information the full article can be found at http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/periodicals/livsci

 

Energy and amino acid utilization in expeller-extracted canola meal fed to growing pigs

Posted in: Energy, Production by katrina on August 8, 2011 | No Comments

Two experiments were conducted to determine the nutritive value of expeller-extracted canola meal (EECM) for growing pigs. In Exp. 1, a total of 6 ileally cannulated barrows (average initial BW = 26.8 kg) were fed 3 diets in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design to determine the apparent and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) values of N and AA and the SID AA contents of EECM. The 3 diets were a cornstarch-based diet with either solvent-extracted canola meal (SECM) or EECM as the sole source of protein, and a low-casein cornstarch-based diet, which was used to estimate basal endogenous N and AA losses to determine the SID of N and AA. All 3 diets contained chromic oxide as an indigestible marker for determining nutrient digestibility by the indicator method. In Exp. 2, a total of 18 intact barrows (average initial BW = 25.9 kg) were fed 3 diets in a completely randomized design (6 pigs per diet) to determine apparent total tract digestibility and retention of nutrients and the DE and ME contents of EECM. The diets were a basal corn-based diet or the basal diet with corn replaced by 35% SECM or EECM. The basal diet was used for determining the total tract digestible nutrient content by the difference method. Solvent-extracted canola meal, which is commonly used in the formulation of swine diets, was fed in both experiments for comparison with EECM. The SECM and EECM were similar in CP content (41.8 vs. 41.4%). Expeller-extracted canola meal was, however, greater in ether extract content (12.03 vs. 5.54%) and decreased in NDF content (23.8 vs. 29.9%) compared with SECM. The EECM also had a greater content of all the AA except Met, Cys, and Ser, by approximately 6.6%; Cys was greater in SECM, whereas Met and Ser were similar between the 2 meals. The EECM had greater SID of N, Arg, Ile, Leu, Phe, Glu, and Pro. The SID contents of Arg, His, Ile, Leu, Phe, Val, Ala, Asp, Glu, Gly, Pro, and Tyr were also greater for EECM than for SECM by an average of 15%. The EECM had greater DE (4,107 vs. 3,790 kcal/kg) and ME (3,978 vs. 3,564 kcal/kg) values compared with SECM. The results show that the EECM used in the current study had greater digestible AA and energy and a greater ME content than the SECM; hence, it may be a better source of protein and energy for growing pigs than SECM.

 

For more information the full article can be found at http://jas.fass.org/

 

Evaluation of elevated dietary corn fiber from corn germ meal in growing female pigs

Posted in: Energy, Production by katrina on | No Comments

To evaluate the effects of dietary hemicellulose from corn on growth and metabolic measures, female pigs (n = 48; initial BW 30.8 kg) were fed diets containing 0 to 38.6% solvent-extracted corn germ meal for 28 d. Increasing the hemicellulose level had no impact on ADG or ADFI, but resulted in a quadratic response on G:F. To investigate physiological changes that occur with increased dietary hemicellulose, blood, colon contents, and tissue samples from the liver and intestine were obtained from a subset (n = 16; 8 pigs/treatment) of pigs fed the least and greatest hemicellulose levels. The abundance of phosphoadenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the mitochondrial respiratory protein, cytochrome C oxidase II (COXII) were determined in liver, jejunum, ileum, and colon by Western blotting. The mRNA expression levels of AMPKα1, AMPKα2, PPAR coactivator 1α (PGC1-α), PPARγ2, and sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) were determined in liver and intestinal tissues. When compared with pigs fed the control diet, pigs fed the high hemicellulose diet had increased plasma triglycerides, but there was no difference in plasma cholesterol, glucose, or insulin. Absolute and relative liver weights were decreased in pigs consuming the high hemicellulose diet. The highfiber diet led to a tendency for decreased liver triglyceride content. In pigs fed the high hemicellulose diet, ileal mucosal alkaline phosphatase activity was increased and sucrase activity tended to be increased. The high hemicellulose diet had no effect on phospho-AMPK, AMPK mRNA, or colonic VFA, but in pigs consuming the high fiber diet there was a greater abundance of COXII in colon tissue. The expression of PGC1-α, PPARγ, or Sirt1 mRNA was not altered by dietary fiber in liver, jejunum, or ileum tissue. In colon tissue from pigs fed the high fiber diet there was an increase in Sirt1 mRNA and a trend toward increased of PGC1-α mRNA. These data suggest that alterations in metabolism involved in adaptation to a diet high in hemicellulose are associated with increased colonic Sirt1 mRNA and COXII expression, indicating an increased propensity for oxidative metabolism by the intestine.

 

For more information the full article can be found at http://jas.fass.org/

 

Effect of dry- versus wet-autoclaving of spray-dried egg albumen compared with casein as protein sources on apparent nitrogen and energy balance, plasma urea nitrogen and glucose concentrations, and growth performance of neonatal swine

Posted in: Energy, Production by katrina on | No Comments

Forty crossbred neonatal pigs with an average initial age of 4 d and BW of 2.16 kg were used in a 28-d experiment to evaluate the nutritional effects of autoclaving a commercial sugar-free, spray-dried egg albumen (EA) compared with casein. Basal diet protein sources were lactic acid casein and EA. Two more dietary treatments were made by replacing the EA with dry-autoclaved EA (DAEA) or wet-autoclaved EA (WAEA, EA and water mixed in a 1.0:1.2 ratio before autoclaving). The DAEA and WAEA were autoclaved at 121°C and 1.75 kg/cm2 pressure for 30 min, and WAEA was oven-dried after autoclaving. Analyzed trypsin inhibitor units/mg of EA, DAEA, and WAEA were 535.0, 9.0, and 6.5, respectively. Pigs were fed the diets in gruel form to appetite in individual metabolism cages every 2 h during the experiment. Blood samples were taken on d 7, 14, and 21, and total urine and fecal grab-samples were collected from d 14 to 21 of the experiment. Response criteria were N and energy balance, plasma urea N (PUN) and glucose concentrations, and growth performance. The WAEA was a higher quality protein source for neonatal pigs than DAEA. Pigs fed the diet containing WAEA absorbed and retained more grams of N/d, had higher percentages of N and energy that were absorbed and retained/intake, had lower concentrations of PUN overall, and had higher ADG and G:F than pigs fed the diet containing DAEA. Most response criteria of pigs fed the diets containing DAEA or EA were not different, although pigs fed the diet containing DAEA had lower overall PUN concentrations, and pigs fed the diet containing EA had higher percentages of energy absorbed and retained/intake, and higher ADG and G:F than pigs fed the diet containing DAEA. Growth performance was not different for pigs fed the diets containing WAEA or casein. However, pigs fed the diet containing casein excreted less (P < 0.05) fecal N, retained more grams of N/d, had higher percentages of N absorbed and retained/intake, and had lower PUN concentrations overall than pigs fed the diet containing WAEA. In conclusion, WAEA was a higher quality protein source for neonatal pigs than DAEA or EA, whereas lactic casein was a higher quality protein source for neonatal pigs than EA, DAEA, or WAEA.

 For more information the full article can be found at http://jas.fass.org/

Effects of distillers dried grains with solubles on amino acid, energy, and fiber digestibility and on hindgut fermentation of dietary fiber in a corn-soybean meal diet fed to growing pigs

Posted in: Energy, Production by katrina on | No Comments

The objective of this experiment was to measure the effect of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on the digestibility of AA, energy, and fiber, on the fermentation of fiber, and on the first appearance of digesta at the end of the ileum, in the cecum, and in the feces of growing pigs fed a cornsoybean meal-based diet. Sixteen pigs (initial BW = 38.0 kg) were prepared with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and a T-cannula in the cecum and allotted to 2 treatments. In period 1, all pigs were fed a cornsoybean meal diet. In periods 2, 3, and 4, pigs were fed the control diet or a diet containing corn, soybean meal, and 30% DDGS. First appearance of digesta at the end of the ileum, in the cecum, and over the entire intestinal tract was measured at the end of period 4. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients were measured, and the concentration of VFA was analyzed in ileal, cecal, and fecal samples. The AID of Lys (74.1%) in the DDGS diet was less than in the control diet (78.6%), but the AID of most other AA and GE, NDF, and total dietary fiber (TDF) were not different between the 2 diets. The ATTD of GE (81.0%), NDF (57.2%), TDF (55.5%), and DM (81.7%) were less in the DDGS diet than in the control diet (86.0, 69.3, 66.0, and 87.2%, respectively). The concentration of VFA in ileal, cecal, and fecal samples was not different between pigs fed the 2 diets. The pH of ileal and cecal digesta from pigs fed the DDGS diet (6.3 and 5.5) was greater than from pigs fed the control diet (5.8 and 5.3). The ATTD of DM, GE, ADF, NDF, and TDF did not change with collection period, but the AID of ADF, NDF, and TDF increased from period 2 to period 4. The concentration of all VFA, except isobutyrate, was greater in cecal samples from period 4 compared with period 2, and the concentration of all VFA except propionate and isovalerate were greater in fecal samples collected in period 4 compared with those collected in period 2. The first appearance of digesta at the end of the ileum, in the cecum, and in the feces was not affected by DDGS. In conclusion, pigs fed the diet containing DDGS had less digestibility of Lys, GE, ADF, NDF, and TDF than pigs fed the control diet. The digestibility of DM and GE was not influenced by collection period, but the concentration of VFA in cecal digesta and feces increased with the length of time pigs received the diets.

 

For more information the full article can be found at http://jas.fass.org/

 

A multivariate nonlinear mixed effects method for analyzing energy partitioning in growing pigs

Posted in: Energy, Production by katrina on | No Comments

Simultaneous equations have become increasingly popular for describing the effects of nutrition on the utilization of ME for protein (PD) and lipid deposition (LD) in animals. The study developed a multivariate nonlinear mixed effects (MNLME) framework and compared it with an alternative method for estimating parameters in simultaneous equations that described energy metabolism in growing pigs, and then proposed new PD and LD equations. The general statistical framework was implemented in the NLMIXED procedure in SAS. Alternative PD and LD equations were also developed, which assumed that the instantaneous response curve of an animal to varying energy supply followed the law of diminishing returns behavior. The Michaelis-Menten function was adopted to represent a biological relationship in which the affinity constant (k) represented the sensitivity of PD to ME above maintenance. The approach accommodated inclusion of a PD potential (PDPotential) concept. This was described by a Gompertz function, which was parameterized in terms of the maximum rate of PD (PDMax) and corresponding BW (BWPDMax) at that point. Metabolizable energy for LD was equated to the difference between ME intake and the sum of ME used for maintenance and PD. Metabolizable energy designated for PD and LD was used, with efficiencies kp and kf, respectively. The new equations were compared with the van Milgen and Noblet (1999) equations using 2 comprehensive data sets on energy metabolism in growing pigs. The 2 equation sets were evaluated using information criteria, which showed that the new equations performed best for data set II, whereas the reverse was true for the first. For the data set I population, estimates for kp and kf were 0.57 and 0.84, respectively. Maintenance was quantified as 1.10 MJ/d∙kg0.55. The animal variation in the parameter kp was estimated to be 6% CV. The animal variation in PDMax and kf was estimated to be 9 and 10% of the population estimates, respectively. It was conclude that application of the MNLME framework was superior to the multivariate nonlinear regression model because the MNLME method accounted for correlated errors associated with PD and LD measurements and could also include the random effect of animal. It is recommended that multivariate models used to quantify energy metabolism in growing pigs should account for animal variability and correlated measurement errors.

 For more information the full article can be found at http://jas.fass.org/

The nutritional value of expeller-pressed canola meal for grower-finisher pigs

Posted in: Energy, Production by katrina on August 5, 2011 | No Comments

Expeller-pressed (EP) canola meal contains more residual oil than solvent-extracted canola meal and might be an attractive feedstuff for swine, but it has been poorly characterized. In Exp. 1, six ileal-cannulated barrows (36 kg of BW) were fed at 3× maintenance either a 44% EP canola meal diet or a N-free diet in a crossover design to measure energy and AA digestibility and calculate standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA and NE content, with 6 observations per diet. Each period consisted of a 5-d diet adaptation and a 2-d feces and 3-d digesta collection. The EP canola meal contained (% of DM) 38.5% CP, 13.3% ether extract, 2.42% Lys, 1.54% Thr, 0.62% Met, and 23.2 μmol/g of glucosinolates. Apparent total tract energy digestibility was 75.0% and the DE and predicted NE content were 3.77 and 2.55 Mcal/kg (in DM), respectively. The SID AA content (% of DM) was 1.77% Lys, 1.04% Thr, and 0.52% Met. In Exp. 2, a total of 1,100 pigs (25 kg of BW) housed in 50 pens were fed 5 dietary regimens with 0, 7.5, 15, and 22.5% or decreasing amounts (22.5, 15, 7.5, and 0%, respectively) of EP canola meal over 4 phases to validate performance and carcass characteristics. Diets were formulated to contain equal NE:SID Lys for each growth phase (g/Mcal; 4.04, d 0 to 25; 3.63, d 26 to 50; 3.23, d 51 to 77; 2.83, d 78 to 90). At slaughter, carcass characteristics were measured for all pigs, and jowl fat was sampled for 2 pigs per pen. For d 51 to 90, the 22.5% EP canola meal regimen was reduced to 18% (22.5/18%) because of decreased ADFI in phases 1 and 2. Overall (d 0 to 90), increasing dietary EP canola meal linearly decreased ADG and ADFI and linearly increased G:F. For 0 and 22.5/18% EP canola meal, respectively, ADG was 978 and 931 g/d, ADFI was 2.77 and 2.58 kg/d, and G:F was 0.366 and 0.378. Increasing dietary EP canola meal did not alter the carcass backfat thickness, loin depth, or jowl fat fatty acid profile. Pigs fed 22.5/18% EP canola meal reached slaughter weight 3 d after pigs fed 0% EP canola meal. In summary, EP canola meal provided adequate energy and AA; however, ADG was reduced by 3 g/d per 1% of EP canola meal inclusion, likely because of increased dietary glucosinolates. Thus, the amount of EP canola meal included in swine diets should be targeted to an expected growth performance and carcass quality. Finally, diets formulated to contain an equal NE and SID AA content did not entirely eliminate the risks for reduce growth performance associated with inclusion of an alternative feedstuff.

For more information the full article can be found at http://jas.fass.org/

Determining the effect of lysine: calorie ratio on growth performance of ten- to twenty-kilogram of body weight nursery pigs of two different genotypes

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Four experiments were conducted to determine the effects of standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys:calorie (Lys:Mcal) ratio on growth performance of 10- to 20-kg pigs of 2 different genotypes. Experiment 1 (360 pigs, average BW = 10.2 kg; source 1) and Exp. 2 (351 pigs; average BW = 9.3 kg; source 2), were both organized as a combination of 2 simultaneous experiments with the first set of diets consisting of 5 treatments with increasing SID Lys and the second set of diets consisting of 5 treatments with increasing energy density (Exp. 1: 9.9, 10.7, 11.5, 12.2, and 13.0 g/kg of Lys and 2.95, 3.09, 3.24, 3.38, and 3.52 Mcal/ kg of ME, respectively; Exp. 2: 11.1, 11.9, 12.6, 13.4, and 14.2 g/kg and 2.95, 3.10, 3.25, 3.40, and 3.55 Mcal of ME/kg, respectively). In Exp. 1, increasing dietary SID Lys increased (linear) ADG and G:F, and increasing dietary ME increased (quadratic) G:F. In Exp. 1 the optimal Lys:Mcal ratio was estimated to be at least 4.1 g of Lys/Mcal of ME based on G:F. In Exp. 2, increasing dietary SID Lys increased (linear) ADG and G:F. Increasing dietary ME increased (linear) G:F. Because of the linear responses in this experiment, optimal Lys:Mcal ratio was at least 4.0 g of Lys/Mcal of ME. In Exp. 3 (350 pigs; average BW = 9.4 kg; source 1) and Exp. 4 (350 pigs; average BW = 7.5 kg; source 2), Lys:Mcal ratios in Exp. 1 and 2 were compared by titrating Lys at 2 energy levels. Pigs were fed diets with 2.95 or 3.29 Mcal/kg of ME with SID Lys:Mcal ratios of 3.1 to 4.1 g/Mcal of ME (Exp. 3) and 3.5 to 4.5 g/Mcal of ME (Exp. 4). In Exp. 3, there was an ME × Lys:Mcal ratio interaction for ADG. The greatest ADG was a Lys:Mcal ratio of 3.60 for pigs fed low ME and a ratio of 3.35 for pigs fed high ME. Gain:feed ratio increased with increased ME concentration and as Lys:Mcal ratio increased (quadratic); the best G:F was observed at 3.67 g of Lys/Mcal of ME. In Exp. 4, there was a tendency for ME × Lys:Mcal ratio interaction for G:F. The greatest G:F was achieved with a Lys: Mcal ratio of at least 4.50 for pigs fed low ME and a ratio of 4.29 for pigs fed high ME. Results (i.e., lack of ADG response to high energy density) suggest pigs reared in this environment were not in energy dependent growth phases. These pigs needed approximately 11 g/d of SID Lys (19 g of Lys/kg of gain) to optimize ADG and G:F. Based on these results, optimal Lys:Mcal ratio may differ depending on daily caloric intake of the pig.

For more information the full article can be found at http://jas.fass.org/

A low-fat liquid diet increases protein accretion and alters cellular signaling for protein synthesis in 10-day-old pigs

Posted in: Energy, Production by katrina on | No Comments

Previous research showed that neonatal pigs respond to decreases in energy density of liquid diets with increased feed intake, resulting in similar performance to pigs fed a more energy-dense diet. The objective of this experiment was to determine whether a high- (25%, HF) or low-fat (2%, LF) liquid diet would affect nutrient accretion rate and select proteins involved in energy homeostasis and protein synthesis in early weaned pigs. Ninety-six pigs, with an initial BW of 3,637 g, were weaned from the sow at 10 d of age and utilized in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were blocked by BW and then assigned to pens (8 pigs/pen). Diets were formulated to provide a constant AA:ME ratio and were fed for 10 d. Pigs were killed at 10, 15, and 20 d of age, at which time blood and LM were collected, and carcasses were prepared for body composition analysis. Blood was analyzed for plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) and NEFA. Longissimus dorsi was analyzed via western immunoblot for mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and adenosine 5′ monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation. Pigs gained 347g/d, which resulted in an ending BW of 6,858g, regardless of dietary treatment. Pigs fed the LF diet consumed 25% more milk than pigs fed the HF diet (2,853 vs. 2,269 g dry feed・pen−1・d−1), which resulted in similar calculated ME intakes between dietary treatments (9.9 vs. 10.5 Mcal・pen−1・d−1). Feed conversion (G:F) was 24% greater in HF-fed compared with LF-fed pigs. Circulating NEFA (40 vs. 138 μEq/L) and PUN (3.0 vs. 17.7 mM) concentrations were less in LF pigs compared with HF pigs after 10 d of dietary treatments. Pigs consuming the LF diet had a 21% increase in protein accretion (50.5 vs. 61.2 g/d) and a 71% reduced lipid accretion rate (28.8 vs. 8.3g/d). Phosphorylation of AMPK was 29% less in LF pigs compared with HF pigs, whereas mTOR phosphorylation was increased by 37% in LF pigs. We conclude that feeding a LF liquid diet to pigs weaned from the sow at 10 d of age increases feed intake to regulate energy intake while maintaining growth performance. In addition, 10-d-old pigs consuming a liquid LF diet have increased protein deposition by a mechanism mediated through AMPK and mTOR.

For more information the full article can be found at http://jas.fass.org/

Comparison of dried whey permeate and a carbohydrate product in diets for nursery pigs

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Three experiments were conducted to compare dried whey permeate (DWP; 80% lactose) and a carbohydrate product (CHO; 40% lactose, 30% sucrose, and 10% glucose) for nursery pigs. Pigs were fed in a 3-phase feeding program, and diets contained 1.6, 1.4, and 1.2% total Lys for phases 1 (d 0 to 7), 2 (d 7 to 21), and 3 (21 to 28). Dietary treatments included 1) control (no lactose), 2) low level of DWP, 3) high level of DWP, 4) low level of CHO, and 5) high level of CHO. In Exp. 1 (4 reps of 4 pigs per pen; initial BW = 7 kg and 23 d of age), the low and high levels used for each source in each phase were phase 1 (12.5 and 25%), phase 2 (10 and 20%), and phase 3 (6 and 12%). In Exp. 2 (6 reps of 5 pigs per pen; initial BW = 8 kg and 26 d of age) and 3 (4 reps of 4 pigs per pen; initial BW = 6 kg and 21 d of age), the inclusion levels were phase 1 (6 and 12%), phase 2 (3 and 6%), and phase 3 (common diet with no lactose). In Exp. 1, pigs fed diets with DWP or CHO had increased ADG and ADFI compared with pigs fed the control diet during phase 1. Gain:feed was reduced for pigs fed diets with CHO. During phases 2, 3, and overall, ADG, ADFI, and G:F were not affected by diet. In Exp. 2, pigs fed diets with CHO had increased ADG and ADFI compared with pigs fed the control diet during phases 1 and 2. Pigs fed diets with CHO had increased ADFI in phases 1 and 2 and increased ADG in phase 2 compared with pigs fed diets with DWP. Overall, pigs fed diets with DWP and CHO had increased ADFI compared with pigs fed the control diet, but ADG was increased for pigs fed diets with CHO. In Exp. 3, ADG, ADFI, and G:F were not affected by DWP or CHO during phase 1. Daily BW gain was increased for pigs fed diets with DWP or CHO during phase 2 compared with pigs fed the control diet. Overall, ADG was increased for pigs fed diets with DWP, but ADFI and G:F were not affected. Results from the combined data of Exp. 2 and 3, indicated that overall ADG and ADFI were increased in pigs fed diets with DWP or CHO compared with pigs fed the control diet. These data suggest that DWP or CHO improve growth performance of weanling pigs.

For more information the full article can be found at http://jas.fass.org/

 
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