Environment

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Prairie Swine Centre is an affiliate of the University of Saskatchewan


Prairie Swine Centre is grateful for the assistance of the George Morris Centre in developing the economics portion of Pork Insight.

Financial support for the Enterprise Model Project and Pork Insight has been provided by:



Comparative evaluation of the use of heat exchanger, ground source heat pump and conventional heating systems in grow-finish rooms

Posted in: Environment, Pork Insight Articles, Production by katrina on October 5, 2011 | No Comments

The use of the heat recovery ventilator with a forced-convection heater and the ground source heat pump system resulted in 52% to 39% reduction in energy consumption for heating and ventilation, respectively, relative to the conventional forced-convection heater after one heating season. However, data collection from multiple heating and cooling seasons is still needed to be able to fully compare the performance and feasibility of these three systems. Reduced energy costs will translate to reduced production cost and will help improve the profitability or minimize losses in swine operations.

Evaluation of temperature conditions in trucks during transport of market pigs to slaughter in four seasons

Posted in: Environment, Pork Insight Articles, Prairie Swine Centre by katrina on | No Comments

Previous research at PSC has shown there is significant variation in conditions (temperature and humidity) among
different compartments in trucks transporting market pigs. This study examined conditions in truck compartments in greater depth by measuring temperature and humidity variation during transport of market pigs throughout the year.Pigs were transported from a commercial farm in Saskatchewan to a packing plant on a weekly basis, involving approximately 7.5 hours of travel.

This report describes the variable conditions observed during transport in different seasons, with pigs transported in the ‘belly’, upper-front and middle-front compartments encountering the least favourable conditions.

It was found that pigs are exposed to variable temperatures during transport, with pigs transported in ‘belly’ compartments encountering lower than average temperatures, and those in upper-front and middle-front compartments encountering elevated temperatures. The effects of different boarding and insulation treatments on transport conditions during winter were examined, but further analysis is needed to determine their effectiveness. The results of these studies will provide important information for improving conditions during transport, and for the direction of future research.

Effect of different quality wheat dried distiller’s grain solubles (DDGS) in pig diets on composition of excreta and methane production from faeces and slurry

Posted in: Environment, Production by katrina on August 24, 2011 | No Comments

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the incorporation in pig diets of 25% of ten different wheat dried distiller’s grain solubles (DDGS) from biofuel production, on (i) the excretion of organic matter (OM), nitrogen (N) and carbon (C), and (ii) on the potential of methane (CH4) emission from effluents (faeces and slurry). Eleven experimental diets were formulated: a control diet mainly based on cereals and soybean meal, and ten experimental diets obtained by adding to the control diet 25% of one of the ten samples of DDGS. The DDGS differed by their origin and the process of biofuel production. They were classified according to a colour score used as an indicator of processing conditions. The ultimate methane potential of effluents (B0, expressed in L CH4/kg OM) was measured for each diet in anaerobic storage conditions over 100 days. The addition of DDGS to pig diets increased the amount of faeces excreted by 27 to 50% and the amount of slurry excreted by 7 to 50%, compared to the control diet. The OM excretions in faeces and in slurry were significantly increased by 59% and 75% respectively, with wheat DDGS inclusion, compared to the control diet. As for total N and C excretory patterns, the addition of wheat DDGS increased their excretions by 65% and 54%, respectively, compared to the control diet. The results indicated that the partitioning of N was shifted from urine to faeces with the inclusion of fibre from wheat DDGS. B0 values measured on faeces and slurry were respectively in a range from202 to 294 and from278 to 368 L CH4/kgOM. On average, B0 values were lower for the effluents from the DDGS diets compared to the effluent from the control diet. The type of DDGS also affected the B0, with lower values obtained for dark compared to medium or light DDGS. When methane emission was expressed per pig and per day, potential productions for slurry and faeces from the control diet were 51 and 68 L/day, respectively. On average, the values were significantly higher, by about 40%, for slurry and faeces from DDGS diets, with 72 and 98 L/day, respectively. It was concluded that the heating process of DDGS may reduce the methane production potential of their indigestible OM. However, because of the increased OM excretion, incorporating DDGS in pig diets increases the potential methane production per pig produced.

 

To view this complete artricle please visit: http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/periodicals/livsci

 

 

Influence of phytase and carbohydrase enzymes on apparent ileal nutrient and standardized ileal amino acid digestibility in growing pigs fed wheat and barley-based diets

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Effects of phytase with orwithout carbohydrases on utilization of nutrients other than P are not well understood in diets adequate in P. Thus, we investigated the effects of Phyzyme XP® (PX) and carbohydrase enzymes (Porzyme®: xylanase and β-glucanase; C) on coefficients of ileal nutrient digestibility (CAID) in growing pigs fed wheat/barley-based diets. The dietswere: 1) basal (B, 8% less DE than NRC, 1998, with no enzymes), 2) B+PX, 3) B+PX+50 g C/MT (B+PX+50C) and 4) B+ PX+100 g C/MT (B+PX+100C). The PX was added at 100 g/MT to all phytase containing feed, and C was added at 50 and 100 g/MT to diets 3 and 4, respectively. Acid insoluble ash was used as an indigestible marker. Diets were fed to 4 barrows (BW 35.9 kg) fitted with a Tcannula at the distal ileum, according to a 4×4 Latin square design. Experimental periods lasted 7 d and ileal digesta were collected in 12-h periods on d-6 and d-7. At the end of the 4- wk period, pigs were fed a 5% casein diet to estimate basal endogenous AA losses. Data were subjected to pre-planned contrasts. Overall, diets containing PX had higher CAID of energy (0.60 vs. 0.58), AA (0.72 vs. 0.69) and phytate (0.56 vs. 0.33) comparedwith the B diet. When corrected for basal endogenous losses, PX-containing diets had higher coefficients of standardized ileal digestibility (CSID) of Met and Thr than the B diet. In the presence of PX, the highest response to C for CAID of energy (0.59 vs. 0.62) was achieved at 50 g/MT; the AID of DM and energy increased by 7.2 and 7.0%, respectively, with 50 g/MT of C compared to B diet. In conclusion, phytase and carbohydrase combined increased CAID of energy, and that PX-containing diets not only increased CAID of AA but resulted in lower diet-specific endogenous losses in a practical diet.

 

 

For more information the full article can be found at http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/periodicals/livsci

 

Rolling behaviour of sows in relation to piglet crushing on sloped versus level floor pens

Posted in: Environment, Production, Welfare by katrina on August 23, 2011 | No Comments

The study focused on the rolling behaviour of sows and the crushing of piglets by sows’ rolling behaviour. The experiment examined the influence of sloped floor in loose housed farrowing pens on the rolling behaviour of sows and crushing of piglets. The experimental unit was made up of 24 pens. There were two experimental pen designs with piglet creep in the corner of the pen and piglet creep across the end of the pen, respectively. Both of the experimental pen designs had a 10% sloped floor in the sow’s resting area. The two control pen designs were identical to the experimental pen designs, but with a level floor. The behaviour of 85 sows and their litters was continuously video recorded. Behavioural observations were made from birth of the first piglet and until 3 days after birth of the first piglet. Rolling behaviour of sows caused significantly more trapped piglets under the sow than lying down from standing. Rolling behaviour caused 64% of the trapped piglets and lying down from standing caused 36% of the trapped piglets. Rolling from udder to side without protection trapped significantly more piglets than rolling from udder to side near slanted wall or piglet protection rails and rolling from side to udder. With a certain pen design sloped floor reduced rolling from udder to side without protection and reduced the number of trapped piglets, but results concerning lying behaviour showed that sloped floor pushed sows to rest on the level part of the floor. The results indicate that rolling behaviour that crushes piglets can be reduced, and sows prefer to lie on a level floor.

To view this complete article please visit: http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/periodicals/livsci/

Apparent nutrient and mineral digestibility in growing–finishing pigs fed phosphorus reduced diets supplemented with benzoic acid and phytase

Posted in: Environment, Production by katrina on August 22, 2011 | No Comments

In a study with 32 growing–finishing crossbred gilts (26–109 kg BW) the effects of benzoic acid and phytase (Peniophora lycii) on nutrient digestibility in P reduced diets was examined. All animals were restrictively fed one of four experimental diets: control diet (CC) without any supplementation, control diet with 0.5% benzoic acid (CB), phytase diet (750 IU/kg,) without benzoic acid (PhyC) and phytase diet with 0.5% benzoic acid (PhyB). Total P (digestible P) content of the control diets was 4 g/kg (1.43 g/kg). In the grower period a negative interaction of benzoic acid×phytase on apparent crude protein and energy digestibility was observed. In the finisher period both additives increased digestibility of P by 12%. Phytase improved Ca digestibility in both fattening periods (+13%). In the finisher period an interaction of benzoic acid×phytase reduced Ca digestibility from 0.62 in diet PhyC to 0.54 in diet PhyB. The results of this study indicate that the combination of benzoic acid and phytase in P reduced diets can adversely affect apparent nutrient and mineral digestibility. So far, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear.

 

 

For more information the full article can be found at http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/periodicals/livsci

 

 

Microbial phytase and liquid feeding increase phytate degradation in the gastrointestinal tract of growing pigs

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The quantitative degradation of inositol phosphates (InsP6 to InsP2) in the stomach and small intestine as influenced by microbial phytase and fermented liquid feeding was compared by combining the results from two experiments. Six pigs (49 kg) were fitted with gastric cannulas (Exp. 1) and 3 pigs (42 kg) were fitted with special ileal cannulas (Exp. 2) for total collection of digesta. The pigs were castrated males, and both experiments were 3×3 Latin squares. A basal wheat/barley diet was pelleted at 90 °C (P 4 and Ca 7 g/kg DM). Diet 1, basal diet fed dry; diet 2, diet 1 with microbial phytase (750 FTU/kg) fed dry; diet 3, diet 2 fed in liquid form (fermented 17.5 h, 20 °C, 50% residual in the tank). InsP6-P was not present in gastric or ileal digesta in pigs fed diet 3 due to complete InsP6 degradation before feeding. In pigs fed diet 2 the amount of gastric InsP6-P was considerably smaller compared with pigs fed diet 1 due to phytase addition. On the other hand, the amount of ileal InsP6-P was only slightly less in pigs fed diet 2 compared with diet 1 indicating that InsP6 is greatly degraded in the small intestine. Furthermore, the amounts of gastric or ileal InsP5–InsP2-P were very small for all diets showing that degradation of these compounds is rapid and nearly complete.

 

For more information the full article can be found at http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/periodicals/livsci

 

Effects of Saururus chinensis extract supplementation on growth performance, meat quality and slurry noxious gas emission in finishing pigs

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This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary Saururus chinensis (S. chinensis) extract supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, meat quality, longissimus muscle and subcutaneous adipose fatty acid composition and slurry noxious gas emission in finishing pigs. A total of 120 [(Landrace×Yorkshire)×Duroc] pigs (54.10kg) were randomly allocated into one of the following dietary treatments: 1) CON, basal diet; 2) S1, basal diet with 1 g/kg S. chinensis extract; 3) S2, basal dietwith 2 g/kg S. chinensis extract. There were 10 replications per treatment with 4 pigs (2 gilts and 2 barrows) per pen. Throughout the experiment, no significant difference was observed in growth performance or nutrient digestibility among treatments. However, serum triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations as well as total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio were significantly decreased in pigs fed S2 diet compared with those fed diets without S. chinensis extract. Furthermore, the S. chinensis extract administration improved lightness (L*) value while having little effects on the fatty acid composition of longissimus muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Providing S2 diet also decreased slurry concentrations of NH3. Taken together, S. chinensis extract administration had only minor effects on finishing pigs with the exception of improving serum lipid protein profile and decreasing the emission of noxious gases from slurry.

 

For more information the full article can be found at http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/periodicals/livsci

Characterization of Selected Nutrients and Bacteria from Anaerobic Swine Manure Lagoons on Sow, Nursery, and Finisher Farms in the Mid-South USA

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Swine (Sus scrofa domestica) production in the Mid-South USA comprises sow, nursery, and finisher farms. A 2007 packing plant closure started a regional shift from finisher to sow and nursery farms. Changes in manure stored in lagoons and land-applied as fertilizer were expected but were unknown because nutrient and bacterial levels had not been characterized by farm type. The objectives of this study were to quantify selected nutrients and bacteria, compare levels by farm types, and project impacts of production shifts. Nutrients and bacteria were characterized in 17 sow, 10 nursery, and 10 finisher farm lagoons. Total and thermotolerant coliforms, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Clostridium perfringens, Campylobacter spp., Listeria spp., and Salmonella spp. were evaluated. Highest levels were from total coliforms (1.4– 5.7 × 105 cfu 100 mL−1), which occurred with E. coli, Campylobacter spp., C. perfringens, and Enterococcus spp., in every lagoon and virtually every sample. Lowest levels were from Listeria spp. And Salmonella spp. (1.3 × 102 most probable number [MPN] 100 mL−1), detected in 81 and 89% of lagoons and 68 and 64% of samples, respectively. Sow farm levels were higher for all except Listeria spp. and Salmonella spp., which were lower (1.4 × 101 and 2.8 × 101 MPN 100 mL−1, respectively) and only slightly below their respective levels from nursery farms (1.1 × 102 and 3.4 × 101 MPN 100 mL−1). Shifting from finisher to nursery farm would not affect bacterial levels, but shifting to sows would. Either shift would reduce NPK and N:P and suggest modification of nutrient management plans.

 

 

Characterization and Dispersion Modeling of Odors from a Piggery Facility

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Piggeries are known for their nuisance odors, creating problems for workers and nearby residents. Chemical substances that contribute to these odors include sulfurous organic compounds, hydrogen sulfide, phenols and indoles, ammonia, volatile amines, and volatile fatty acids. In this work, daily mean concentrations of ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were measured by hand-held devices. Measurements were taken in several places within the facility (farrowing to finishing rooms). Hydrogen sulfide concentration was found to be 40 to 50 times higher than the human odor threshold value in the nursery and fattening room, resulting in strong nuisance odors. Ammonia concentrations ranged from 2 to 18 mL m−3 and also contributed to the total odor nuisance. Emission data from various chambers of the pig farm were used with the dispersion model AERMOD to determine the odor nuisance caused due to the presence of H2S and NH3 to receptors at various distances from the facility. Because just a few seconds of exposure can cause an odor nuisance, a “peak-to-mean” ratio was used to predict the maximum odor concentrations. Several scenarios were examined using the modified AERMOD program, taking into account the complex terrain around the pig farm.

 

 

 
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