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New Energy and Amino Acid Requirements for Gestating Sows

Posted in: Pork Insight Articles, Swine Innovation by katrina on February 15, 2012 | No Comments

In the last few years, new research in sow nutrition has provided evidence that the feeding regimen of gestating sows needs revision. In particular, the change of amino acid requirements from early to late gestation and the energy deficit of young sows in late gestation give a strong indication that phase feeding of pregnant sows may be of advantage. This paper will review recent research, introduce future perspectives in sow nutrition and suggest options for feeding strategies for sows.

The recent results for amino acid and energy requirements of sows strongly support the need for parity-segregated phase feeding of pregnant sows. The phase feeding program should consist of two diets that satisfy the higher and lower amino acid requirements. The feed amounts should be increased for the last four weeks of gestation. The increase in feed offered should be 0.6 kg/d for gilts, 0.5 kg/d for 2nd parity sows and approximately 0.4 kg/d for older sows. Such a feeding program supplies slightly less feed during gestation compared to single phase feeding but supplies amino acids and energy to the sows at the right amounts at the right time.

Phase feeding for pregnant sows

Posted in: Pork Insight Articles, Swine Innovation by katrina on | No Comments

 In the last few years, new research in sow nutrition has provided evidence that the traditional feeding regimen of gestating sows needs revision. In particular, the change of amino acid requirements from early to late gestation and the energy deficit of young sows in late gestation indicate that phase feeding of pregnant sows may be advantageous. This paper will review recent sow nutrition research and suggest feeding strategies for sows. 

It was found that the recent results for amino acid and energy requirements of sows strongly support the need for parity-segregated phase feeding of pregnant sows. The phase feeding program should consist of two diets that satisfy the highest and lowest amino acid requirements and can be mixed in appropriate ratios to cover the intermediate amino acid needs. The feed amounts should be increased for the last four weeks of gestation. The increase in feed allowance of a corn-soybean meal diet should be 0.6 kg/d for gilts, 0.5 kg/d for 2nd parity sows and approximately 0.4 kg/d for older sows. Such a feeding program requires slightly less feed during gestation compared to single phase feeding but supplies amino acids and energy to the sows in the right amounts at the right time.  

Isoleucine requirement of pregnant sows – ABSTRACT

Posted in: Pork Insight Articles, Swine Innovation by katrina on | No Comments

Requirements of sows may change in pregnancy because of maternal tissue development and conceptus growth during the different phases of gestation. The objective of this study was to determine the Ile requirement in early (EG, 37 to 61 d) and late (LG, 89 to 109 d) gestation using the indicator amino acid oxidation method.  It was found that energy retention was similar in EG and LG, but the respiratory quotient decreased from EG to LG  and decreased with increasing dietary Ile level, indicating lipid mobilization in LG when Ile was at or above the requirement. The increase in Ile requirement from EG to LG suggests that phase feeding during gestation is necessary. Diets for LG should contain more Ile and be fed at greater allowances than in EG to meet the sows’ demands for nutrients.

Isoleucine requirement for pregnancy in adult sows – ABSTRACT

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Pregnant adult sows show little maternal growth so that accelerated conceptus growth in the 3rd trimester can cause large differences in nutrient requirements between early (EG) and late (LG) gestation. The objective of this study was to determine the Ile requirement in EG (d 37 to 61) and LG (d 89 to 109) using the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method.  It was found that Ile requirements were driven mainly by maintenance in EG and by fetal growth in LG.  Both Ile and energy intake must be increased in LG but the greater change in Ile than energy requirement shows that amino acid supply is more critical in LG for adult sows.

Isoleucine requirement of pregnant sows – ABSTRACT

Posted in: Pork Insight Articles, Swine Innovation by katrina on | No Comments

Requirements of sows may change in pregnancy because of maternal tissue development and conceptus growth during the different phases of gestation. Isoleucine (Ile) is a limiting amino acid (AA) in corn-soy diets. The objective of this study was to determine the Isoleucine requirement in early (EG) and late (LG) gestation using the indicator AA oxidation method.   It was found that Ile requirements of adult sows increased more from EG to LG than tryptophan requirements in young, growing sows, and were driven mainly by maintenance in EG and by fetal growth in LG. The AA supply is more critical in LG than energy intake for adult sows. Therefore, phase feeding during gestation is necessary to meet the sows’ requirements.

Save $ with New Feeding Standards for Sows

Posted in: Pork Insight Articles, Swine Innovation by katrina on | No Comments

In the last few years, our new research in sow nutrition has provided evidence that the traditional feeding regimen of gestating sows needs revision. In particular, the change of amino acid (AA) requirements from early to late gestation and the energy deficit of young sows in late gestation indicate that phase feeding of pregnant sows may be advantageous.   This article shows data obtained on the requirements of lysine, threonine, isoleucine and tryptophan in late and early gestating sows.  Also details on energy requirements during gestation are presented as well as the effect on the sows due to different feeding regimens.  It was found that switching to parity-segregated phase feeding of sows will save feed costs by supplying nutrients in the right amounts at the right time.

New developments in energy and amino acid nutrition of sows – ABSTRACT

Posted in: Pork Insight Articles, Swine Innovation by katrina on | No Comments

Sow body weight, leanness and litter size have improved over the last 10 years, indicating increased amino acid and energy requirements. In addition, fetal weight and protein gain increase in late gestation so that requirements for amino acids and energy must change over the course of gestation. Models for amino acid and energy requirements of pregnant sows show that requirements in late gestation are greater than in early gestation.  

This study at the University of Alberta found that  parity-segregated phase feeding of pregnant sows supplies the amino acids and energy necessary to match the sows’ requirements. This can result in reduced feed cost, better sow condition at farrowing, better rebreeding success and prolonged productive life of sows.

Centred on Swine Volume 15

Posted in: Prairie Swine Centre by katrina on November 10, 2011 | No Comments

Individual articles in these issues of Centred on Swine are located in our PorkInsight Database.

Volume 15 Number 2Centred on Swine 15-2

  • Benchmarking – The Right Tool for the Times
  • Nutritional Value of Flaxseed for Swine and Its Effects on Carcass Fatty Acid Profile
  • Whittington Honoured for Industry Leadership
  • Comparative Evaluation of Infrared Radiant and Forced-Air Convection Heating Systems for Hog Barns
  • Free Space Utilization of Sows in Free Access Stalls
  • Common Misconceptions in Benchmarking

Volume 15 Number 1Centred on Swine 15-1

  • Message from the President
  • Evaluating Energy Usage and Various Energy Conservation Strategies for Swine Barns
  • Net Energy Contect of Canola Meal and Full-Fat Canola Seeds in Swine
  • Transportation of Pigs in Western Canada:  Temperatures Within Trucks During Winter and Summer Months
  • Ractopamine Hydrochloride and the Environmental Sustainability of Pork Production
  • Feeding the 2009 Crop
  • The Plant Extract Micro-Aid, has Unexpected Effects on Litter Size

 

Does a high water sulphur level increase odour and gaseous emissions?

Posted in: Pork Insight Articles, Prairie Swine Centre by katrina on November 4, 2011 | No Comments

 

A recently published paper by Bernardo Predicala and John Patience of the Prairie Swine Centre, describes a study that was conducted to determine if high levels of sulphate in the drinking water results in an increase in odour and gaseous emissions from the barn or affects other swine manure properties.

 

Introduction

 

Sulphur intake is of particular concern because out of the 10 most odorous components of swine odour identified so far, six were found to contain sulphur. These odour components are produced mainly from anaerobic breakdown of unutilized nutrients excreted by pigs into the manure.

 

Drinking water can contribute significantly to sulphur intake of pigs. One major source is the sulphate content in water supplies, which has been found to exceed 1600 mg/L in certain geographic areas. Studies showed that pigs offered water with increased sulphate levels (up to 1800 mg/L) had increased prevalence of non-pathogenic diarrhea, although growth performance was rarely impaired. However, no one has assessed the impact of poor water quality on air emissions and swine manure properties.

 

The overall goal of this study was to determine the effect of varying levels of sulphur in drinking water on odour and gaseous emissions and on manure nutrient composition. Pig growth performance was also measured. Four water treatments were compared, normal water, with a low sulphate content and water with 600, 1200 and 1800 milligrams per litre of sulphate. The waters containing elevated sulphate were formulated to reflect the composition of water observed on commercial farms experiencing high mineral levels in their drinking water.

 

The 2-ft deep manure pits in the rooms used for the trial were emptied every two weeks. To evaluate the effect of the treatments on manure properties and gaseous emissions from manure under long-term storage, manure samples were collected from each room just before emptying the pits. The manure sample was transferred into a 205L (45 gallon) barrel, one for each room, and stored for an additional five weeks to simulate longer-term manure storage.

 

Gas levels spike when pits pulled

 

The levels of ammonia (NH3) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in each room were monitored continuously but were not markedly different between the different treatments.  There was no statistically significant impact of the sulphate levels in the water on the concentrations and emissions of these gases from the treatment rooms.

 

Monitoring of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) levels in each room showed that they were extremely low, less than one part per million, which was less than the minimum that the detection equipment could measure. However, when the manure pit-plug was pulled to clear the manure from the pits, H2S levels increased during the approximately 15-min period in which the manure slurry was flowing out of the pit. A typical plot of the H2S levels during the plug-pulling day is shown in Figure 1; a similar pattern was observed in all of the rooms.

 

 

The peak H2S levels in the treatment rooms that received high-sulphate water (1200 and 1800 ppm) tended to be higher than in the low-sulphate rooms (Control and 600 ppm). However, these spikes occurred for only a short period of time and the high levels (288 and 134 ppm H2S for 1200 and 1800 ppm sulphate respectively) were dissipated to less than 10 ppm in less than 10 minutes. Nevertheless, it is possible that high-sulphate levels in drinking water could contribute to the generation of high H2S levels during manure clearing operations. If not conducted properly, this could potentially lead to exposure of barn workers and pigs to elevated H2S levels.

 

Odour and emissions not affected

 

Odour concentration and emissions were not affected by the water treatment and high sulphate levels did not lead to an increase in the measurements of these parameters.

 

Analysis of manure samples collected from the manure pit of each room and from the barrels used to simulate longer-term manure storage showed no significant effect of water treatment on total nitrogen, ammonia-N, total solids or phosphorus in the room manure samples, but there were significant effects on potassium and sulphur levels. As would be expected, the manure sulphur level increased as water sulphate level increased.

 

Interestingly, comparison of nutrient levels in the barrel manure samples showed significant differences between treatments for all nutrients tested. Manure samples from the treatment rooms with sulphate added to the drinking water tended to have about 10% higher nutrient levels relative to the control samples (excluding S and Na which had 50% more than the control due to the treatment). Thus, it would appear that high-sulphate drinking water may result in better retention of nutrients in stored manure.

 

Pig performance was not adversely affected by high levels of sulphate in the pig’s drinking water. During the study, no notable incidence of scouring or diarrhea was observed. The pigs’ average daily gain ranged between 0.86 to 1.12 kg/day but was not different between treatments.

 

Conclusions

 

Elevated levels of sulphate in the drinking water had no adverse impact on manure nutrient composition, odour and gas (NH3 and CO2) emissions or on the performance of grower-finisher pigs. Thus, water containing up to 1600 to 1800 ppm sulphate can be used for growing and finishing pigs with no concern for animal performance or for odour or gas emissions from the barn. However, we suggest one caution.  When using high-sulphate drinking water, the potential exists for higher H2S spikes during manure handling operations. Appropriate measures should be taken to protect animal and worker health and safety. While water quality may impact other aspects of barn siting, growout pig performance and odour and gas emissions should not be a concern.

 

 

Photo caption:  Figure 1: Typical H2S levels monitored in a treatment room, showing no detectable values throughout most of the day, except during the plug-pulling event (indicated by the spike in H2S levels)

 

 

 

 

Weaning at 28 days. Is creep feeding beneficial?

Posted in: Pork Insight Articles, Production by katrina on October 5, 2011 | No Comments

Providing supplemental feed to the piglets in the farrowing room, or creep feeding, is practised to ensure a smooth transition onto solid feed at weaning. It is assumed that even a limited intake of the creep feed will familiarize the piglet with solid feed and lessen a post-weaning growth lag by 1) increasing the body weight of piglets at
weaning, 2) encouraging consumption of solid feed following weaning and, 3) adapting the gastro-intestinal tract to solid feed. This study was initiated when the Prairie Swine Centre moved to a later weaning age (28 days). We hypothesized that the benefits of creep feeding would be more evident with later weaning. Additionally, we examined if the response to creep feeding would differ between light and heavy birth-weight pigs.

It was found that allowing piglets access to a Phase 1 diet (creep feed) in the farrowing room for the final 7 days prior to weaning on  day 28 provided no sustained performance benefit, regardless of weaning weight.

 
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