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Prairie Swine Centre is an affiliate of the University of Saskatchewan


Prairie Swine Centre is grateful for the assistance of the George Morris Centre in developing the economics portion of Pork Insight.

Financial support for the Enterprise Model Project and Pork Insight has been provided by:



Author(s): Armin R.W. Elbers
Publication Date: January 1, 2002
Reference: Banff Pork Seminar 2002
Country: Canada

Summary:

Foot and mouth disease (FMD) and Classical Swine Fever (CSF) are highly contagious pig diseases and must be reported if an outbreak occurs. FMD affects cloven-hoofed animals and comes in large epidemics. Diagnosis is often difficult because the disease is unfamiliar to farmers and veterinarians if it has been unseen. In 1997, an outbreak in Taiwan led to the entire country being declared FMD infected. Four factors that contributed to the spread include delays before eradication, pig farm density, inability to shut down livestock markets, and lack of vaccinations. This led to loss of exports and cost of $379 million USD in the Taiwan pork market. Korea was able to contain the FMD outbreaks on cattle farms successfully through prompt control measures. It took a re-occurrence in the UK in 2001 about 1.5 years to eradicate. CSF is one of the most economically important diseases. Australia, Canada, New Zealand, USA, and some members of the EU have been successful in eradicating the virus. This disease is a constant threat to wild boar, which makes wild boar a constant threat to domestic pigs. Countries that are CSF-positive control them via vaccination, but this still limits their export capabilities. Before vaccination can be done, depopulation, slaughter, movement restrictions, and other measures must be taken, especially in areas with a dense pig population. In late 1998 and 1999 a disease called the Nipah virus broke out in Malaysia. The symptoms of Nipah are respiratory and neurological syndromes. This disease can be spread to humans. It originated from fruit and insect-eating bats, which most likely carried a similar disease in Australia called the Hendra virus. The mode of transmission was the movement of pigs in a very active pig trade. The neurological aspect of the disease typically affected sows while the respiratory aspect affected growing pigs. All pigs in the area of an outbreak were culled. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is primarily spread by fecal-oral contact. Ensuring a clean water supply is the best preventative measure.

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