Environment

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Prairie Swine Centre is an affiliate of the University of Saskatchewan


Prairie Swine Centre is grateful for the assistance of the George Morris Centre in developing the economics portion of Pork Insight.

Financial support for the Enterprise Model Project and Pork Insight has been provided by:



Author(s): Fulhage, C.D.
Publication Date: January 1, 1997
Reference: Livestock Environment V. Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium. Edited by R. W. Bottcher, S.J. Hoff. American Society of Agricultural Engineering, St Joseph, Michigan, 49085-9659. p. 355-362
Country: United States

Summary:

Composting can be an interesting method of carcass disposal as rendering (which is the most ideal method) may not be available everywhere, burial, landfilling and incineration may have environmental, regulatory and economic liabilities. As composting have been an effective way of disposed of poultry carcasses, applied research has been applied to swine carcasses. Five years experiments resulted in the development of design, construction and management procedures that would allow the composting of swine carcasses of any size in a matter that is environmentally sound and acceptable to regulatory agencies. Composters should provide 0.57 m3 (20 ft3) of primary and secondary bin volume per pound of carcass that composted daily and for every 450 kg (1000 LB) of carcass, 2.8 m3 (100 ft3) of sawdust is required. Annually, for farrow-to-finish production units, considering a typical mortality rate about 0.4 m3 (14ft3) of sawdust is needed per sow-place. A composting time of at least 6 months is necessary to composed large carcasses. Guidelines are provided to realize the design, construction, determination of the material needed and the recipes for the mix and the management protocol are also given. The compost obtained can be applied on crop lands at agronomic rates and contains 12 kg/Mg of nitrogen, 6 of P2O5 (phosphorus) and 3 of K2O (potassium) (25, 13, and 7 LB/ton of compost).
All elements are given for the composting of dead pigs, However in cold conditions, the degradation and composting process would probably be slower. More time would be needed to obtain mature compost. Some testing should be done to verify the efficiency of this process for long cold winter conditions. In soils that are permeable, a lining (concrete, clay, membrane) under the compost pile should be installed in order to prevent leachates infiltration that could occur.

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