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Author(s): Boer, I.J.M. et al
Publication Date: January 1, 1997
Reference: Journal of Animal Science. August 1997, Volume 75 (8), pp. 2054-2063
Country: Netherlands

Summary:

Annual nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) flows in agriculture in The Netherlands were identified and quantified in 1990, with special emphasis on pig production. Also, the effects that various management strategies in pig production have on NPK emission in 1990 were compared using a static deterministic simulation model. Ammonia emission from pig production in 1990 (60.9 Gg N) exceeded the defined target for the year 2000 (12.7 Gg N). Measures that affect volatilization of ammonia directly (i.e., introduction of low-emission stables, manure storage facilities, or manure application techniques) reduced ammonia emission most effectively. These measures, however, should be combined with a reduction in application of artificial N fertilizer to avoid an increase in N losses through leaching, run-off, or denitrification. Targets for ammonia emission in the year 2010 require a reduction in the pig population of 24 to 62%, in addition to implications of measures described in this article. National NPK losses in 1990 through leaching, run-off, or denitrification, predicted at 223.5 kg/ha for N, 32.7 kg/ha for P, and 67 kg/ha for K, exceed government targets for the year 2010 (185 kg N/ha; 8.7 kg P/ha; norm not set for K). Reducing application of artificial NPK fertilizer reduced national NPK losses most effectively. For P, use of phytase and feeding pigs in accordance with their P requirements is required, in addition to limited use of artificial P fertilizer, to meet targets for the year 2010. Hence, from an environmental point of view, pig production in The Netherlands is limited primarily by ammonia emission targets for the year 2010.

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