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Association analyses of candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms on reproductive traits in swine

Posted in: Production by katrina on August 5, 2011

The ability to identify young females with superior reproduction would have a large economic impact on commercial swine production. Previous studies have discovered SNP associated with economically important traits such as litter size, growth rate, and feed intake. The objective of this study was to test for association of candidate SNP with sow prolificacy reproductive traits in gilts of a Landrace-Duroc- Yorkshire composite population. Association analyses regressed additive (A), dominant (D), and imprinting (I) SNP effects on each trait with an animal model. A carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A SNP and a glycogen synthase 1 SNP were associated with age at puberty (AP; D = 10 d and A = 3.8 d, respectively). Four IGF2 SNP were associated with AP as well, having additive or dominant effects (3.2 to 5.8 d). Two mannosidase 2B2 SNP and 2 prolactin receptor (PRLR) SNP were also associated with AP. Solute carrier 22, subfamily member 5 SNP was weakly associated with AP (D = 3.9 d). Polymorphisms within glycogen synthase 1 and protein kinase AMP-activated, gamma 3 noncatalytic subunit had associations with ovulation rate. Estrogen receptor (ESR) 1, ESR2, PPAR γ coactivator 1, and IGFBP3 SNP were significantly associated with weaning-to-estrus interval. Two PRLR SNP were associated with total number of piglets born (A = 0.57 piglets; and D = 0.61 piglets, respectively). A SNP within PRLR was also associated with number of piglets born alive (D = 0.61). The PPAR γ coactivator 1 SNP was associated with total number of piglets born (D = 0.38 piglets) and number of piglets born alive (D = 0.53 piglets). The SNP within ESR1 (A = 0.65 piglets), ESR2 (A = −0.33 piglets), IGF2 SNP (A = −0.26 piglets), and IGFBP3 SNP (D = 0.35 piglets) were associated with number of piglets born dead. A leptin SNP was associated with mummified fetuses (D = 0.09 piglets). Many of the SNP analyzed in this study are from genes involved in regulation of metabolism, suggesting that there is an important link between physiological events associated with reproduction and energy utilization. Furthermore, these production and growth trait SNP may serve to assist in selection of young females for superior reproductive performance.

For more information the full article can be found at http://jas.fass.org/

A low-fat liquid diet increases protein accretion and alters cellular signaling for protein synthesis in 10-day-old pigs

Posted in: Energy, Production by katrina on

Previous research showed that neonatal pigs respond to decreases in energy density of liquid diets with increased feed intake, resulting in similar performance to pigs fed a more energy-dense diet. The objective of this experiment was to determine whether a high- (25%, HF) or low-fat (2%, LF) liquid diet would affect nutrient accretion rate and select proteins involved in energy homeostasis and protein synthesis in early weaned pigs. Ninety-six pigs, with an initial BW of 3,637 g, were weaned from the sow at 10 d of age and utilized in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were blocked by BW and then assigned to pens (8 pigs/pen). Diets were formulated to provide a constant AA:ME ratio and were fed for 10 d. Pigs were killed at 10, 15, and 20 d of age, at which time blood and LM were collected, and carcasses were prepared for body composition analysis. Blood was analyzed for plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) and NEFA. Longissimus dorsi was analyzed via western immunoblot for mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and adenosine 5′ monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation. Pigs gained 347g/d, which resulted in an ending BW of 6,858g, regardless of dietary treatment. Pigs fed the LF diet consumed 25% more milk than pigs fed the HF diet (2,853 vs. 2,269 g dry feed・pen−1・d−1), which resulted in similar calculated ME intakes between dietary treatments (9.9 vs. 10.5 Mcal・pen−1・d−1). Feed conversion (G:F) was 24% greater in HF-fed compared with LF-fed pigs. Circulating NEFA (40 vs. 138 μEq/L) and PUN (3.0 vs. 17.7 mM) concentrations were less in LF pigs compared with HF pigs after 10 d of dietary treatments. Pigs consuming the LF diet had a 21% increase in protein accretion (50.5 vs. 61.2 g/d) and a 71% reduced lipid accretion rate (28.8 vs. 8.3g/d). Phosphorylation of AMPK was 29% less in LF pigs compared with HF pigs, whereas mTOR phosphorylation was increased by 37% in LF pigs. We conclude that feeding a LF liquid diet to pigs weaned from the sow at 10 d of age increases feed intake to regulate energy intake while maintaining growth performance. In addition, 10-d-old pigs consuming a liquid LF diet have increased protein deposition by a mechanism mediated through AMPK and mTOR.

For more information the full article can be found at http://jas.fass.org/

Effect of milk chocolate product on week-1 feed intake and growth performance of weanling pigs

Posted in: Production by katrina on

Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of dried whey (DW; 70% lactose) or milk chocolate product (MCP; 20% lactose and 60% sugars) on wk-1 feed intake and growth performance of pigs. Diets contained 1.60, 1.40, 1.40, and 1.20% total Lys for phase 1 (d 0 to 7), 2 (d 7 to 14), 3 (d 14 to 21), and 4 (d 21 to 35), respectively. Pigs were blocked by initial BW; sex and littermates were balanced across treatment; treatments were replicated with a minimum of 5 pens of 4 pigs each. Pigs were weaned at 24, 19, and 24 d of age with an initial BW of 6.5, 6.0, or 6.3 kg for Exp. 1 to 3, respectively. In Exp. 1 and 2, the treatments were 1) negative control (NC), no lactose added, 2) positive control (PC) with DW, 3) 25% replacement of the level of DW of the PC diet with MCP (25MCP), and 4) 50% replacement of the level of DW of the PC diet with MCP (50MCP). The level of DW or combinations of DW and MCP were 20, 10, and 5% for phases 1, 2, and 3 respectively. A common diet with no lactose was fed during phase 4. In Exp. 3, the treatments were 1) NC, 2) PC, and 3) 100% replacement of the level of DW of the PC diet with MCP (100MCP). In the combined data of Exp. 1 and 2, daily collected feed intake during wk 1 was increased from d 3 to 7 for the PC pigs; on d 2, 3, 4, and 7 for the 25MCP pigs; and from d 2 to 7 for the 50MCP pigs compared with the NC pigs. There was no difference on any day of wk 1 among pigs fed the PC and MCP diets. During phase 1, ADG and ADFI were increased for the PC, 25MCP, and 50MCP pigs compared with the NC pigs, but G:F was not affected. During phases 2, 3, 4, and overall, there were no differences in growth performance among pigs fed the PC and MCP diets. In Exp. 3, collected daily feed intake during wk 1 was increased from d 2 to 5 for PC pigs and on d 1 and 2 for the 100MCP pigs compared with the NC pigs. However, there was no difference on any day of wk 1 between the PC and 100MCP pigs. Growth performance was not affected during any phase of the experiment. Combined data from Exp. 1, 2, and 3 using the NC and PC diets indicated that dietary DW increased final BW and increased ADG and ADFI during phases 1, 2, 3, and overall. These results indicate that partial or total replacement of DW with MCP had no effect on wk-1 feed intake or growth performance of weanling pigs and that MCP could be considered as a formulation alternative to DW.

 

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Reduced feed intake of lactating primiparous sows is associated with increased insulin resistance during the peripartum period and is not modified through supplementation with dietary tryptophan

Posted in: Production by katrina on

The aim of this experiment was to investigate whether insulin resistance is related to the dietary concentration of Trp and the ADFI of primiparous sows having similar body conditions. Twenty-four primiparous sows were catheterized on d 97 of pregnancy. Blood samples were collected during 3 tests: after the ingestion of 1.5 kg of feed (meal test), after the intravenous infusion of 0.5 g of glucose/kg of BW (glucose tolerance test), and during an euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp with an infusion rate of 100 ng of insulin・kg of BW−1・min−1. Both tests were performed at 4 stages at approximately d 103 and 110 of pregnancy and at d 3 and 10 of lactation. Sows were fed a diet containing 0.16 or 0.26% of total Trp (suboptimal vs. slight excessive Trp supply according to recommendations for lactating sows) from d 104 of pregnancy after the first clamp until weaning. The dietary treatment did not result in differences in ADFI, BW, and backfat changes, and growth of piglets during lactation. Plasma Trp concentration was greater for the sows allocated to the slight excessive Trp diet than for the sows allocated to the suboptimal Trp diet. Plasma glucose, NEFA, and urea profiles during the meal tests were not affected by the dietary treatment. At d 3 of lactation, the insulin concentration at 105 and 120 min after meal intake was less for the sows allocated to the slight excessive Trp diet than for the sows allocated to the suboptimal Trp diet. On d 10 of lactation, the glucose half life and the time needed to reach 25% of the area under the insulin curve during the tolerance test were less for the sows allocated to the slight excessive Trp diet than for the sows allocated to the suboptimal Trp diet. The glucose infusion rate during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps was similar in the 2 Trp groups of sows. Irrespective of the dietary treatment, the ADFI of the sows was negatively related to the glucose half life during the glucose tolerance test and positively related to the glucose infusion rate during the clamp. This relationship observed with the tests performed during early lactation was already found with the tests performed during late pregnancy. Present findings indicate that a dietary Trp supply of 0.26% does not increase feed intake in lactating primiparous sows. This result indicates that the interest in a Trp supplementation during the peripartum period can be questioned. Irrespective of the dietary treatment, the reasons why sows with similar rearing conditions develop different rates of insulin resistance during pregnancy remain to be elucidated.

For more information the full article can be found at http://jas.fass.org/

Fermented soybean meal as a vegetable protein source for nursery pigs: I. Effects on growth performance of nursery pigs

Posted in: Production by katrina on

Four experiments were conducted using 671 nursery pigs to evaluate fermented soybean meal (FSBM) as a new vegetable protein source for nursery pigs. In Exp. 1, a total of 192 pigs weaned at 19.2 d of age were fed 3 diets (8 pens per treatment) for 2 wk: a control diet (without FSBM) and 2 diets with 3 and 6% FSBM replacing soybean meal, followed by a common diet for the next 2 wk. In Exp. 2, a total of 160 pigs weaned at 21.6d of age were fed 4 diets (5 pens per treatment) for 2 wk: a control diet (without FSBM but with 25% dried skim milk; DSM) and 3 diets with 3, 6, and 9% FSBM replacing DSM based on CP. Concentrations of CP, Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp were kept consistent among diets in Exp. 1 and 2. In Exp. 3, a total of 144 pigs weaned at 22.1d of age were fed 3 diets (6 pens per treatment) for 2 wk: a control diet (without FSBM but with 40% DSM) and 2 diets with 5 and 10% FSBM replacing DSM based on CP. Concentrations of CP, Lys, Met, Thr, Trp, and lactose were kept consistent among diets. In Exp. 4, a total of 175 pigs weaned at 20.7d of age were fed 5 diets (5 pens per treatment) for 3 wk: a basal diet [15.5% CP without plasma protein (PP) and FSBM], 2 diets (18.4% CP) with 3.7% PP or 4.9% FSBM, and 2 diets (21.2% CP) with 7.3% PP or 9.8% FSBM. Concentrations of Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp were kept consistent among diets with the same CP concentrations. Pigs had access to feed and water ad libitum and their BW and feed intake were measured weekly for all experiments. Use of up to 6% FSBM replacing soybean meal improved G:F and diarrhea scores of nursery pigs (Exp. 1). Use of up to 9% FSBM replacing DSM reduced ADG and G:F (Exp. 2). When lactose concentrations were equal, FSBM could replace up to 10% DSM without adverse effects on ADG and G:F (Exp. 3). Relative bioavailability of protein in FSBM to PP was 99.1% (Exp. 4). Collectively, FSBM can serve as an alternative protein source for nursery pigs at 3 to 7 wk of age, possibly replacing the use of DSM and PP but excluding the first week postweaning for PP when balancing for AA and lactose.

For more information the full article can be found at http://jas.fass.org/

The effect of diet composition on tryptophan requirement of young piglets

Posted in: Production by katrina on

 The aim of the study was to evaluate the requirement for Trp in relation to diet composition in piglets in the period after weaning (BW range of 9 to 24 kg). Two Trp-deficient [relative to the Dutch (CVB, 1996) and NRC (NRC, 1998) requirement values for piglets of 10 to 20 kg of BW] basal diets were formulated: one based on corn and soybean meal and a second one based on wheat, barley, soybean meal, peas, and whey powder [10.0 g/kg of apparent ileal digestible (AID) Lys; 1.4 g/kg of AID Trp; 1.5 g/kg of standardized ileal digestible (SID) Trp]. Both basal diets were supplemented with 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 g of l-Trp per kg of diet to obtain diets with 1.7, 2.0, and 2.3 g of AID Trp per kg (1.8, 2.1, and 2.4 g of SID Trp per kg), respectively. Each of the 8 treatments was evaluated in 8 replicates (pens with 8 male or female piglets). Average daily feed intake, ADG, and G:F were measured as response criteria. Over the 28-d experimental period, ADG and G:F were greater for the treatments on the wheat/barley diet compared with those on the corn/ soybean meal and were increased by the level of Trp in the diet. Average daily feed intake was only increased by the level of Trp supplementation. Increasing the Trp level increased ADFI for the corn/soybean meal diet up to 2.3 g of AID Trp per kg (2.4 g of SID Trp per kg) and up to 2.0 g of AID Trp per kg (2.1 g of SID Trp per kg) in the wheat/barley diet. For both diet types supplementation of free l-Trp increased the G:F up to 1.7 g of AID Trp per kg (1.8 g of SID Trp per kg). Nonlinear regression analysis of the response curves for ADFI using an exponential model for estimating a requirement value for Trp (defined as the Trp level resulting in 95% of the maximum response) revealed a requirement estimate of 2.3 g of AID Trp per kg for the corn/soybean mealbased diet and 2.1 g of AID Trp per kg for the wheat/ barley-based diet, equivalent to 2.4 and 2.2 g of SID Trp per kg of diet, respectively. For ADG, a requirement estimate of 2.1 g of AID Trp per kg for both types of diets was derived, equivalent to 2.2 g of SID Trp per kg of diet. The Trp requirement for young piglets seems to be greater than indicated by some commonly used recommendations and does not seem largely dependent on diet ingredient composition.

Effects of selection for decreased residual feed intake on composition and quality of fresh pork

Posted in: Meat Quality, Production by katrina on August 4, 2011

The objectives of this study were to determine the extent to which selection for decreased residual feed intake (RFI) affects pork composition and quality. Pigs from the fifth generation of selection for decreased RFI (select) and a randomly selected line (control) were utilized. Two experiments were conducted. In Exp. 1, barrows (22.6 ± 3.9 kg) from select and control lines were paired based on age and BW. The test was conducted in 8 replicates of pairs for the test period of 6 wk. Calpastatin activity and myosin isoforms profile were determined on samples from the LM. Control barrows were heavier (59.1 vs. 55.0 kg) at the end of the test period. Calpastatin activity was greater in LM of select barrows than control barrows. In Exp. 2, composition and quality of gilts (114 kg) from control and select lines were determined. The model included fixed effects of line, slaughter date, melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) genotype, barn group, line × slaughter date, genotype × line interactions, a covariate of off-test BW, and sire, pen, and litter fitted as random effects. The select line (n = 80) had 0.043 kg less RFI per day than the control line (n = 89). Loin quality and composition were determined at 2 d postmortem. Desmin degradation was measured at 2 and 7 d postmortem. Purge, cook loss, sensory traits, and star probe texture were measured at 7 to 10 d postmortem on cooked chops. Residual correlations between RFI and composition and quality traits were calculated. Compared with the control line, carcasses from the select line tended to have less backfat, greater loin depth, and greater fat free lean. Loin chops from the select line had less intramuscular lipid content than loin chops from control line. Significant residual correlations between RFI and both tenderness (r = 0.24) and star probe (r = −0.26) were identified. Selection for decreased RFI has the potential to improve carcass composition with few effects on pH and water-holding capacity. However, decreased RFI could negatively affect tenderness and texture because of decreased lipid content and decreased postmortem protein degradation.

 

For more information the full article can be found at http://jas.fass.org/

 

Influence of feed flavors and nursery diet complexity on preweaning and nursery pig performance

Posted in: Production by katrina on

In Exp. 1, 50 sows and their litters were used to determine the effects of adding a feed flavor to the creep diet on the proportion of pigs consuming creep feed (“eaters”) and preweaning performance. Sows were blocked according to parity and date of farrowing and allotted to 2 experimental treatments: 1) litters fed a creep diet with no flavor (negative control) or 2) negative control diet with the feed flavor (Luctarom) included at 1,500 mg/kg. Both creep diets contained 1.0% chromic oxide and were offered ad libitum from d 18 until weaning at d 21. Adding flavor to the creep diet did not affect weaning weights, total BW gain, ADG, total creep feed intake, daily creep feed intake, or the proportion of creep feed eaters in whole litters. In Exp. 2, 480 weanling pigs (6.58 kg; 20 d) from Exp. 1 were randomly selected by preweaning treatment group, blocked by initial BW, and allotted to 1 of 8 treatments in a randomized complete block design to determine the interactive effects of preweaning exposure to flavor (exposed vs. unexposed), nursery diet complexity (complex vs. simple), and flavor addition to nursery diets (with vs. without flavor). Each treatment had 10 replications (pens) with 6 pigs per pen. Diets with flavor were supplemented with the flavor at 1,500 mg/kg in phase 1 diets and 1,000 mg/kg in phase 2 diets. A tendency for a 3-way interaction for ADG from d 5 to 10, 10 to 28, and 0 to 28 was observed. Postweaning ADG of pigs exposed to flavor in creep feed and fed flavored complex diets in the nursery was greater than pigs in any other treatment combination. Increasing diet complexity improved ADG and ADFI during both postweaning phases. Adding flavor to creep feed had no effect on G:F and pig BW in both postweaning periods. Adding flavor to starter diets tended to improve ADFI during d 0 to 5. In conclusion, adding flavor to the creep feed did not affect litter creep feed intake, the proportion of piglets consuming creep feed, or preweaning performance when creep was provided for 3 d before weaning. Preweaning exposure to feed flavor improved postweaning ADG in pigs fed complex diets supplemented with the same flavor but did not influence performance of pigs fed simple diets.

  

For more information the full article can be found at http://jas.fass.org/

 

Immune response and blood chemistry of pigs fed conjugated linoleic acid

Posted in: Production by katrina on

Immune function (response to concanavalin A, cytokine production, and lymphocyte profiles) and blood chemistry variables were measured in growing-finishing pigs (Yorkshire/Landrace/Duroc dam × Hampshire sire) fed varying percentages of CLA (0, 0.12, 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0%). Blood was collected at 0, 14, 28, 42, and 56 d on feed (DOF). Total white blood cell (WBC) count increased linearly to 42 DOF. No differences were observed for WBC across CLA treatment. Nitric oxide was greater for the 1.0% CLA treatment compared with all other treatments. Flow cytometry using fluorescent labeled monoclonal antibodies to the CD4, CD8, double-positive CD4/CD8, and CD2 surface markers was used to determine lymphocyte subpopulations. Supplementation of CLA had no effect on lymphocyte subpopulation cell distribution. Most blood chemistry variables were within the normal metabolic range for pigs. A decrease was observed over DOF for P and K. Additionally, Na and Cl concentrations increased from 14 to 28 DOF and decreased over the remainder of the trial. Electrolyte balance was not different across CLA treatments and was likely explained by no differences in feed intake among the CLA treatment groups. Blood lipid variables indicated that total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins, and low-density lipoproteins increased as the amount of CLA in the diet increased, but none of the results from these treatments exceeded the normal range of acceptability. These results suggested that CLA was safe when fed to growing-finishing pigs and had little effect on their immune function and blood chemistry variables.

 

For more information the full article can be found at http://jas.fass.org/

Lactulose as a marker of intestinal barrier function in pigs after weaning

Posted in: Production by katrina on

Intestinal barrier function in pigs after weaning is almost exclusively determined in terminal experiments with Ussing chambers. Alternatively, the recovery in urine of orally administered lactulose can be used to assess intestinal permeability in living animals. This experiment was designed to study the barrier function of the small intestine of pigs over time after weaning. The aim was to relate paracellular barrier function (measured by lactulose recovery in the urine) with macromolecular transport [measured by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) using Ussing chambers] and bacterial translocation to assess whether lactulose recovery is related to possible causes of infection and disease. Forty gonadectomized male pigs (6.7 kg) were weaned (d 0) at a mean age of 19 d, fitted with urine collection bags, and individually housed. Pigs were dosed by oral gavage with a marker solution containing lactulose (disaccharide) and the monosaccharides l-rhamnose, 3-Omethylglucose, and d-xylose at 2 h and at 4, 8, and 12 d after weaning. The recovery of sugars in the urine was determined over 18 h after each oral gavage. The day after each permeability test, the intestines of 10 pigs were dissected to determine bacterial translocation to the mesenteric lymph nodes and jejunal permeability for HRP in Ussing chambers. Recovery of l-rhamnose in urine was affected by feed intake and by the time after weaning. Recovery of lactulose from the urine was greater at 4, 8, and 12 d after weaning compared with the first day after weaning and was negatively correlated with feed intake. The mean translocation of aerobic bacteria to the mesenteric lymph nodes was greater at 5 and 13 d after weaning compared with d 1. Lactulose recovery showed no correlation with permeability for HRP nor with bacterial translocation. Although both lactulose recovery and bacterial translocation increased over time after weaning, lactulose recovery did not correlate with the permeability for HRP nor bacterial translocation within a pig. Therefore, we conclude that lactulose recovery in the urine of pigs after weaning is not associated with risk factors for infections. However, it appears to be possible to measure paracellular barrier function with orally administered lactulose in pigs shortly after weaning. Further studies will reveal whether this variable is relevant for the long-term performance or health of pigs after weaning.

 

For more information the full article can be found at http://jas.fass.org/

 

 
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